Hassan Haes Alhelou, S. Jamal Mirjalili,"Automated Online EV Virtual Power Plant Based Primary Reserve in Interconnected Power Systems"in the 4th international congress in electric industrial automation (ICEIA2016), February 2016.

Abstract—The penetration level of the renewable energy
resources (RER), such as wind power turbines and solar
photovoltaic generation, in interconnected power systems has
been increased in many countries. A high penetration level of
RERs causes some problems to the grid operator, e.g., lack in
primary reserve. Due to environmental concern and energy
security risk, many countries around the world decided to
increase their electric vehicles (EV) in the near future which
provides a good chance to use them as a mobile battery energy
storage system (BESS). This paper proposes a new scheme to
provide necessary primary reserve from electric vehicles by using
hierarchical control of each individual vehicle. An EV aggregator
based on the vehicle’s information such as the required state of
charge (SOC) for the next trip, departure time, and initial SOC is
proposed. The proposed aggregation scheme determines the
primary reserve and contracts it with system operator based on
electricity market negotiation. The effectiveness of the proposed
scheme is shown by the several simulation studies in the Taiwan
power (Tai-power) system to enhance frequency nadir and steady
state frequency after a large disturbance.